Galungan and Kuningan are feast days of the Hindus. Galungan falling every six months (210 days) or every Buda Kliwon Dungulan, Wednesday (Nov. 1), while Kuningan falls every Saniscara Kliwon Kuningan, Saturday (Nov. 11). In the Sundarigama palm-manuscript is mentioned that celebration of Galungan and Kuningan symbolizes the victory of dharma (truth) against adharma (untruth), the victory of Jayatiga against Kalatiga.
Dr. I Ketut Sumadi, said the celebration of Galungan has started from the previous week namely with Sugihan Jawa ritual (Oct. 26) and Sugihan Bali (Oct. 27). While on Sunday (Oct. 29) is called penyekeban meaning the preparation of ritual paraphernalia. Raw materials are ripening so that they can be used to fill the ritual paraphernalia of Galungan.
On Sunday, the Kalatiga comes down to tempt human life, so here is really the victory against the temptation of life in the local wisdom of Bali is better known as Sad Ripu (six enemies). Sad Ripu is the six enemies in human beings affecting humans into self-forgetfulness. It consists of kama (lust, desire), lobha (greed), krodha (anger), moha (confusion), mada (drunk) and matsarya (envy, jealousy).
According to Dr. Sumadi, the coming down of temptations of life is a power, so that people need to be vigilant to see one’s self living with the environment. This is in accordance with the concept of microcosm (human body) and macrocosm (universe) that must be kept in balance.
While on Monday is the Penyajahan Galungan as the time to prepare everything in more details related to ritual paraphernalia. On that account, it becomes a part of celebrating the victory of dharma against adharma.
On Penyajaan Galungan, human temptation level will be higher, so hopefully there is no temptation in preparing the ritual paraphernalia. The next day, on Tuesday (Oct. 31) is Penampahan Galungan where devotees start to purify themselves, so it is symbolized with slaughtering animal (pig or chicken). “In the context of philosophy, it is the time to do self-contemplation namely making self-awareness to be higher by stripping ourselves what we have ever done, the six things making us forgetful,” he explained.
At that time, humans dispose of the lust of animalistic temptation into a divine nature, making non-good into good. Therefore, on the penampahan, other than making Balinese food like lawar delicacy, people also prepare ritual paraphernalia in the afternoon. One of the banten or oblations made is prayascita, as a symbol of self-purification carried out around 18:00-19:00. The ceremony is followed by all family members, so that everything can already feel free from temptation.
In the afternoon of the penampahan day, devotees install penjor, meaning that humans can be aware of temptation at that time, so they start doing the seconds of independence. Installing penjor is the symbol of human independence from worldly temptations to achieve prosperity of life. It is an expression of gratitude for the prosperity bestowed by God. “As for banten, devotees prepare yellow-white food oblation symbolizing sanctity,” added Dr. Sumadi.
He said that banten prayascita symbolizes the expression of gratitude for the grace of God in the form of self-awareness, so that devotees can do a good job. It also results in happiness not only for oneself, but also for others. Penjor is symbolizing mountain where the deities abide. “At that time, God grants prosperity to his devotees,” he added.
In the philosophy of Mount Agung, there are three dragons giving prosperity to their people. They are Basuki giving fertility, Ananta Boga providing endless feeding and Taksaka keeping the air circulation, so that human can survive as energized by the elements of fire, water and wind as the 3 elements causing human to live. On the penampahan, human can live quietly.
On Galungan, humans carry out rituals in accordance with their respective abilities. Aside from saying prayers at home, they also say prayers at clan temple, village trinity temple and universal temple. “Devotees also say prayers in other places such as sanctified water source, paddy field, and grave by putting food oblation along with side dish, water, coffee and cigarette,” he said.
The offerings are addressed to dead parents who are still buried (before ritually cremated), so that people can feel relieved. At night, they can practice yoga and worship God in all its manifestations whether as generator, operator and destroyer. Destroyer is important in order that something useless could be restored to its origin, can be recycled to be useful. On Thursday (Nov. 2) or Umanis Galungan devotees offer banten penganyar or small banten to plead for guidance of God that Galungan ritual has been already executed properly.
“On Umanis Galungan human beings are given better enlightenment, so that getting sweeter filled with mutual forgiving activities or mutually visit relatives and friends to strengthen social ties,” he explained.
On Sunday (Nov. 5) is the Pemacekan Agung, meaning that human beings should not be careless again after receiving enlightenment of God. On Monday (Nov. 6) is Somoribek Day, meaning that human beings really become strong until the next activity, according to the task and obligation. On Friday (Nov. 10) is the Penampahan Kuningan having the same process to boost awareness. Human beings may no longer get tempted by Kalatiga. They must strengthen the soul to overcome temptations of life.